Special Anticoagulants and Antiglycolytic Agents

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Posted on 30th March 2011 by admin in Uncategorized

There are special-use anticoagulants that are combined with other additives for special blood testing situations that must be learned when studying how to become an allied health professional and especially how to become a phlebotomist technician.

Acid citrate dextrose (ACD)- This is a solution that is used for DNA testing and human leukocyte antigen phenotyping for paternity evaluation and determining transplant compatibility.  Acid citrate is able to bind calcium and prevent coagulation.

Citrate-Phosphate-Dextrose (CPD)- This anticoagulant is used when collecting blood for transfusions.  Citrate is able to prevent clotting by binding with calcium, phosphate stabilizes pH, and dextrose helps to keep cells alive and energized.

Sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS)-  SPS is able to prevent coagulation by binding with calcium.  This anticoagulant is commonly used for blood culture collection because it is also able to reduce the action of complement proteins that destroy bacteria, slows down phagocytosis, and reduces the activity of certain antibiotics.

An antiglycolytic agent is a substance that is used to prevent glycolysis, the breakdown of blood sugar, by blood cells.  If this process is not prevented by using an antiglycolytic agent, the blood sugar in a blood specimen will decrease at a rate of 10 mg/dL per hour.

Glycolysis has been found to occur much faster in newborns due to their high metabolisms.  Also patients with leukemia have higher rates of glycolysis because they have a higher rate of metabolic activity from the activity of white blood cells.

Sodium fluoride is the most common antiglycolytic agent used.  It is able to preserve glucose for up to 3 days and is also useful at inhibiting the growth of bacteria.

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